Prevalence Of Intellectual Disabilities
This chapter reviews recent evidence on the prevalence of intellectual disability in the general population of children in the United States and compares this to trends in the frequency of ID allowances and recipients in the Supplemental Security Income program as well as trends in ID prevalence among children enrolled in Medicaid.
Stats Canada: One Out Of Three Nova Scotians Lives With Disabilities
KJIPUKTUK 30.4%, or almost one in three Nova Scotians, self-identifies as living with one or more disabilities, new data published by Statistics Canada show.
No other province comes close to those numbers. Canada-wide the percentage is 22.3%, or more like one in five.
The high percentage of Nova Scotians living with disabilities isnt just because the province has a relatively high share of Canadas ageing population, as is often assumed. Nova Scotia leads the pack in all age-groups.
25.1% of Nova Scotians with disabilities consider those disabilities to be severe. Once again thats more than any other province, with a Canadian average of 22.1%
Unsurprisingly, people who live with disabilities have a hard time finding a job. While almost 79% of Nova Scotians are employed, this is only the case for 62.2% of Nova Scotians with one or more disabilities.
Stats Canada also collects data about the types of disability people self-report.
Almost 150,000 Nova Scotians live with chronic pain, some 10,000 Nova Scotians self-reported as living with developmental disabilities.
Also note the high proportion of people who report living with mental health issues, numbers that make Nova Scotias crisis in mental health care all the more urgent.
Even more remarkable is that across all age groups the number of people reporting mental health issues is consistently higher in Nova Scotia than in Canada altogether.
So now you know.
Premature Death And Ill Health The Global Burden Of Disease
Human potential that is lost due to poor health is immense: The Global Burden of Disease project aims to quantify this loss by estimating the number of healthy life years lost globally. This metric takes into account both, the human life years lost due to early death and the life years compromised by disease and disability. It is a massive study that takes into account thousands of datasets to capture the burden of diseases globally.
55.9 million people died in 2017. If we sum up all life years lost due to premature death the sum of the differences between each persons age of death and their life expectancy at that age we find that the world population lost 1.65 billion years of potential life due to premature death in that year. Disease and disability meant that an additional 853 million years of healthy life years were lost.1
It is hard to get a sense of scale for these enormous numbers. One way to illustrate it is to put it in relation to the global population, which was 7.53 billion in that year. The global burden of disease, viewed in this way, sums up to a third of a year lost for each person on the planet.2
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Disability In North America
- In 2002 roughly 51.2 million or 18% of Americans stated they had some form of disability for 32.5 million of them the disability was severe.
- Canadian population estimates from 2001 stated that 3.9 million people were disabled. This represents approximately one in eight Canadians as having a disability.
Eligibility Does Not Equal Diagnosis
This is a really common issue I find with parents. Parents will say things like The schools diagnosis is autism, but we dont think.
Schools cannot, and usually do not, diagnose kids. They are finding your child to be eligible or ineligible based on the criteria for each classification category. Thats it. They are determining eligibility, not a diagnosis.
A diagnosis from a doctor or specialist does not guarantee eligibility. Nor does being eligible for an IEP classification mean that your doctor will diagnose either. I have explained the difference between medical and educational autism in another post.
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Mental Illness And Addiction: Facts And Statistics
- Mental Illness and Addiction: Facts and Statistics
- The Crisis is Real
- Mental Illness and Addiction: Facts and Statistics
The terms “mental illness” and “addiction” refer to a wide range of disorders that affect mood, thinking and behaviour. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, as well as substance use disorders and problem gambling. Mental illness and addiction can be associated with distress and/or impairment of functioning. Symptoms vary from mild to severe.
With appropriate treatment and support, most people will recover.
Title: Disability Impacts All Of Us
61 million adults in the United States live with a disability
- 26 percent of adults in the United States have some type of disability. Graphic of the United States.
- The percentage of people living with disabilities is highest in the South.
Percentage of adults with functional disability types:
- 13.7 percent of people with a disability have a mobility disability with serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs.
- 10.8 percent of people with a disability have a cognition disability with serious difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions.
- 6.8 percent of people with a disability have an independent living disability with difficulty doing errands alone.
- 5.9 percent of people with a disability are deaf or have serious difficulty hearing
- 4.6 percent of people with a disability have a vision disability with blindness or serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses.
- 3.6 percent of people with a disability have a self-care disability with difficulty dressing or bathing.
Disability and communities.
Disability is especially common in these groups, older adults, women and minorites.
- 2 in 5 adults age 65 years and older have a disability
- 1 in 4 women have a disability.
- 2 in 5 non-Hispanic American Indians/ Alaska Natives have a disability.
Disability and Health
Adults living with disabilities are more likely to be obese, smoke, have heart disease and diabetes:
Disability and Health Care Access
Making a difference
Public health is for all of us.
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Mild Moderate Severe Intellectual Disability Differences
Experts divide the types of cognitive impairment into four categories: mild intellectual disability, moderate intellectual disability, severe intellectual disability, and profound intellectual disability. The degree of impairment from an intellectual disability varies widely. DSM-V places less emphasis on the degree of impairment and more on the amount and type of intervention needed.
While IQ scores are still relevant and important in assessing the level of intellectual disability, the new DSM-V adds another layer of diagnostic criteria . Mental health professionals must consider the person’s ability or impairment across three skill areas: conceptual, social, and practical life skill.
The category details are as follows:
The Disease Burden By Age
In the two chart here we see the breakdown of total disease burden by age group from 1990 onwards. This is shown as the relative breakdown of the total disease burden and by the rates of burden per 100,000 individuals within a given age group.
Overall we see a continued decline in health burden in children under 5 years old both in relative terms , and in rates per 100,000 .
Nonetheless, rates of disease burden remain highest in the youngest and oldest in society. DALY rates in under-5s and those over 70 years old remain significantly higher than other age groups. They have, however, seen the most notable declines in recent decades.
At a global level, collective rates across all ages have been in steady decline. This shows that global health has improved considerably over the course of the last generation.
The visualization here shows the relationship between average income measured by GNI per capita and the Burden of Disease. The Burden of Disease is disaggregated into the health burden due to communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases.
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Environmental And Other Causes
Sometimes an intellectual disability is caused by an environmental factor or other causes. These causes can be quite varied but can include:
- Problems during pregnancy such as viral or bacterial infections
- Complications during birth
- Exposure to toxins such as lead or mercury
- Complications from illnesses such as meningitis, measles or whooping cough
- Exposure to alcohol and other drugs
Longitudinal Stability Of Disability Prevalence Rates
Specific Learning Disability
The average 2008 SLD prevalence rate across all districts was significantly higher than the average rate in 2010 , 2011 , 2012 , 2013 , 2014 , 2015 , 2016 , 2017 , and 2018 . The 2008 SLD prevalence rate was not significantly different from the average rate in 2009 . Similarly, the average 2009 SLD prevalence rate was significantly higher than all years 20102018. Furthermore, the 2010 SLD prevalence rate was significantly lower than 2008 and 2009 and significantly higher than subsequent years 20112018. Remaining pairwise comparisons between years in the 20112018 range were not significant, indicating prevalence rates remained at similar levels across seven subsequent school years post RTI implementation.
The mean 2008 LI prevalence rate was significantly lower than the rates in 2010 , 2011 , 2012 , 2013 , 2014 , 2015 , 2016 , 2017 , and 2018 . Similarly, the average 2009 LI prevalence rate was significantly lower than all years 20102018. Furthermore, the 2010 LI prevalence rate was significantly higher than 2008 and 2009 and significantly lower than subsequent years 20112018. Remaining pairwise comparisons between years in the 20112018 range were not significant, indicating LI prevalence rates remained at similar levels across seven subsequent school years post RTI implementation.
FIGURE 1. SLD and LI prevalence rates as the proportion of all students in the population across 11 years .
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Horrifying Learning Disabilities Statistics
Weve been developing a much greater understanding of learning disabilities, especially over the past three decades, where our ability to diagnose, categorize, and measure their impact has improved significantly. Nowadays, were much more able to point out learning disabilities statistics that prove how they affect us on an individual level and collectively.
Below, well take a deeper look at the learning disability facts and stats, such as prevalence rates of LDs, methods we take to address these conditions, how LDs affect lifetime achievement rates, and more.
Keep reading to get the real facts on learning disabilities.
Income And Disease Burden From Non
The two charts here highlight two important relationships between non-communicable disease burden and income. The first suggests that rates of burden from NCDs is highest at lower-incomes and tends to decline with development. DALYs lost from NCDs are typically lower at higher incomes.
However, it is also true that NCDs constitute a dominant share of disease burden at higher incomes . The fact that both of these relationships are true: that NCD burden tends to decline with development, but increases its share of overall disease burden further highlights that total health burden declines significantly with improving living standards and healthcare.
The fact that NCD DALY losses at low-income are high, but still only constitute a small share of overall health burden emphasises the scale of DALY losses from communicable and preventable diseases which remain.
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Disability Inclusion In The Health Sector
Very often, disability is not perceived as a public health issue. Therefore, action is not taken towards disability inclusion in the health sector, which is also often overlooked in national disability strategies and action plans to implement and monitor the CRPD. Thus, disability inclusion in the health sector remains a breach in countries health agendas.
Ministries of Health need to commit towards disability inclusion. This involves action to achieve equity for people with disability in three areas:
- access to effective health services,
- protection during health emergencies, and,
- access to cross-sectorial public health interventions, such as water, sanitation and hygiene services to achieve highest attainable standard of health.
Governments can improve health outcomes for people with disability by improving access to quality, affordable healthcare services, which make the best use of available resources. As several factors interact to inhibit access to healthcare, reforms in all the interacting components of the healthcare system are required.
Us Disability Statistics By State County City And Age
Synopsis: Charts showing U.S. census disability percentage statistics by age, state, county and city, in the United States. This information can help identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among American adults and support disability-relevant planning. The charts below show U.S. disability percentage statistics by age, state, county and city.
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Income And Disease Burden From Communicable Diseases
The health burden due to communicable diseases vs GDP per capita is shown in the following visualizations. The correlation between both measures is apparent: both DALY loss rates and the total share from communicable diseases tend to decline with increasing incomes. But despite this correlation, Sterck et al. 20174 find that GNI is not a significant predictor of health outcomes once other factors are controlled for. The first of these other factors is individual poverty relative to a health poverty line of 10.89 international-$ per day. The second factor is the epidemiological surrounding of a country which captures the health status of neighbouring countries. And the third important factor is institutional capacity.
United Nations Disability Inclusive Strategy
In June 2019, the UN Disability Inclusion Strategy was launched by the UN Secretary-General to promote sustainable and transformative progress on disability inclusion through all pillars of the work of the United Nations. This strategy requires all UN agencies to ensure that disability inclusion is consistently and systematically mainstreamed into all aspects of work.
WHO welcomes UNDIS and is currently preparing a comprehensive WHO Policy on Disability and Action Plan, committing WHO to become an organization inclusive of people with disabilities in all their diversity and to systematically integrate disability in all programmatic areas, including at the country-level.
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The Global Distribution Of The Disease Burden
This map shows DALYs per 100,000 people of the population. It is thereby measuring the distribution of the burden of both mortality and morbidity around the world.
We see that rates across the regions with the best health are below 20,000 DALYs per 100,000 individuals. In 2017 this is achieved in many European countries, but also in Canada, Israel, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, Kuwait, the Maldives, and Australia.
In the worst-off regions, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, the rate is higher than 80,000 DALYs per 100,000.
Impact Of Rti Policy On Disability Prevalence
Proponents of RTI initially proclaimed the potential for RTI to increase general education inclusion for students with disabilities, thereby reducing the number of students receiving core instruction in special education environments . The delivery of general education interventions was thought to have preventive value for common disabilities such as SLD in reading and LI. Some evidence suggests that RTI can result in fewer diagnoses of reading disabilities and improve reading performance among students who later qualify for SLD support in reading . However, a survey of state education directors revealed that few states have been systematically evaluating the effectiveness of RTI to reduce disability prevalence .
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Categories Of Disabilities In Idea
There are 14 categories of disabilities listed in IDEA.
I cant believe that I havent done a post on Disability Classification on the IEP before. Well, actually I can. Ive been asked before and its a pretty big piece to bite off and chew. There 13 or 14 classifications of disability on the IEP. The reason it changes is because DD disappears after age 9 in most states. You can read more about that by clicking the link at number 4 on the list.
Does it matter which box is checked? Can you have more than one IEP disability category checked? What if you disagree with the team on which disability classification to check on the IEP?
But thankfully I am not doing it until now, because my thinking has really changed on this. One great thing about being an advocate and meeting so many parents is that I get so many viewpoints on issues. It genuinely helps me learn and form opinions.
And my opinion on this, much like my opinion on vision statements, has changed.
Does it matter which classification box for the disability category is checked on your childs IEP? Yes. Or maybe not. See, this is why I didnt want to do this post before. Mostly yes, I lean towards yes. Lets dig in, shall we?
First, lets go over the background of this.
Low And High Incidence Disabilities
- have received some type of special education service since birth
- need the same attention as students without disabilities
- includes students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities
- may have a developmental delay
Examples of Low-Incidence Disabilities:
- multiple disability
- certain spectrum of autism
- often hard to distinguish from students without disabilities, especially in non-school settings
- often display a combination of academic, behavioral and social problems
- can meet same standards as students without disabilities when highly structured interventions are put into place
Examples of High-Incidence Disabilities:
- communication disorders
- specific learning disabilities
- mild/moderate mental retardation
- cognitive impairment
- certain spectrum of autism
- a description of the disability areas.
- appropriate modifications and accommodations for disability categories.
- components of an IEP pertinent to a general education teacher.
- descriptions of different inclusion strategies usable by a general education teacher.
- descriptions of different behavioral strategies to support students in the general education classroom.
- collaboration techniques for working with special education teachers and other IEP members.
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