Distinction From Other Disabilities
Clinically, intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities, which is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as intellectual disability, or too specific , or acquired later in life through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia. Cognitive deficits may appear at any age. Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development. This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for intellectual disability.
Research Into Positive Traits
Possible positive traits of ADHD are a new avenue of research, and therefore limited. Studies are being done on whether ADHD symptoms could potentially be beneficial.
A 2020 review found that creativity may be associated with ADHD symptoms, particularly divergent thinking and quantity of creative achievements, but not with the disorder of ADHD itself â i.e. it has not been found in patients diagnosed with the disorder, only in patients with subclinical symptoms or those that possess traits associated with the disorder. Divergent thinking is the ability to produce creative solutions which differ significantly from each other and consider the issue from multiple perspectives. Those with ADHD symptoms could be advantaged in this form of creativity as they tend to have diffuse attention, allowing rapid switching between aspects of the task under consideration flexible associative memory, allowing them to remember and use more distantly-related ideas which is associated with creativity and impulsivity, which causes people with ADHD symptoms to consider ideas which others may not have. However, people with ADHD may struggle with convergent thinking, which is a process of creativity that requires sustained effort and consistent use of executive functions to weed out solutions which arent creative from a single area of inquiry. People with the actual disorder often struggle with executive functioning.
Specific Learning Disabilities: Plural Definable Diagnosable And Treatable
The passage of PL 94-142 in 1975 legislated that children with educational handicapping conditions were guaranteed the right to a free and appropriate public education . Unfortunately, it did not define what the specific kinds of learning disabilities are and what effective instructional approaches recommended for each are. Rather, the legally mandated criteria have been based on eligibility for services under the umbrella category of learning disabilities rather than nature of instruction needed for a specific diagnosis.
Another unfortunate consequence of a purely legal solution to obtaining FAPE has been that state level implementation of federal special education laws has been driven by legal and accounting policies rather than by best professional practices of teachers and the whole team of educational professionals and school administrators. Regrettably, there is policy to hold teachers accountable without granting professional autonomy to tailor instruction to the developmental and individual differences of their students. See Berninger .
Resources to Share with Educators
Henry, M. . Unlocking literacy. Effective decoding and spelling instruction. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Also Check: How Much Does Disability Pay In California
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a condition which affects parts of the brain which control attention, impulses and concentration. It can have an impact on school, peer relationships, self-esteem and family life without appropriate treatment.
The signs of ADHD are different in every person but they may include some of the following:
- a short attention span and being easily distracted
- making careless mistakes, for example, in schoolwork
- appearing forgetful or losing things
- being unable to concentrate on tasks
- excessive talking
Can An Intellectual Disability Be Caused By Other Disorders Like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Or Language Difficulties
Although ADHD and language disorders do not cause an intellectual disability, it is important to consider these factors when diagnosing a child with an intellectual disability. Difficulties with attention and language comprehension and production are often seen in children and adults with an intellectual disability.However, if attention difficulties are significant even when a child is placed within a structured learning environment, they may meet criteria for ADHD as well. Language is often considered when making the diagnosis of an intellectual disability. Specifically, it is important to consider if a childs overall cognitive limitations are due to difficulties accessing language, only. This why IQ scores alone do not determine if a child has an intellectual disability.
Its Great If You Live In A Remote Location
Living in a rural or remote part of Australia can mean there is less to do, or that you have to travel further to do things. How far would you have to travel to get to a gym each week? Or how long does it take you to get to the nearest library? These might be things you enjoy that you can only do occasionally because of where you live.
Online learning has opened up more opportunities than ever before as you can access it from anywhere.
United States And Canada
In the United States and Canada, the terms learning disability and learning disorder refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason, organize information, and do math. People with learning disabilities generally have intelligence that is average or higher.
Legislation in the United States
The Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1973, effective May 1977, guarantees certain rights to people with disabilities, especially in the cases of education and work, such being in schools, colleges and university settings.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to the age of 21. Considered as a civil rights law, states are not required to participate.
Recommended Reading: Is A Food Allergy Considered A Disability
Can Intellectual Disability Be Prevented
Certain causes of intellectual disability are preventable. The most common of these is fetal alcohol syndrome. Pregnant women shouldnt drink alcohol. Getting proper prenatal care, taking a prenatal vitamin, and getting vaccinated against certain infectious diseases can also lower the risk that your child will be born with intellectual disabilities.
In families with a history of genetic disorders, genetic testing may be recommended before conception.
Certain tests, such as ultrasound and amniocentesis, can also be performed during pregnancy to look for problems associated with intellectual disability. Although these tests may identify problems before birth, they cannot correct them.
So If An Intellectual Disability Is Considered A Slower Pace Of Learning Then Why Is It Not Called A Learning Disability
There is often confusion regarding the difference between a learning and intellectual disability. Children with a learning disability often have select deficits with learning in specific academic domains . These children demonstrate stronger performance on IQ measures than children with an intellectual disability. The long-term implications may be different for an individual with a learning disability versus an intellectual disability as well. Individuals with a learning disability do not often have the same level of adaptive impairments as someone with an intellectual disability. These adaptive impairments often lead individuals with an intellectual disability to require long-term supports, where this is not the same for someone with a learning disability.
Don’t Miss: How Much Does Disability Pay In California
What Services Are Available For People With Intellectual Disability
For babies and toddlers, early intervention programs are available. A team of professionals works with parents to write an Individualized Family Service Plan, or IFSP. This document outlines the childs specific needs and what services will help the child thrive. Early intervention may include speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, family counseling, training with special assistive devices, or nutrition services.
School-age children with intellectual disabilities are eligible for special education for free through the public school system. This is mandated by the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act . Parents and educators work together to create an Individualized Education Program, or IEP, which outlines the childs needs and the services the child will receive at school. The point of special education is to make adaptations, accommodations, and modifications that allow a child with an intellectual disability to succeed in the classroom.
Learning Disabilities In Adulthood
A common misconception about those with learning disabilities is that they outgrow it as they enter adulthood. This is often not the case and most adults with learning disabilities still require resources and care to help manage their disability. One resource available is the Adult Basic Education programs, at the state level. ABE programs are allotted certain amounts of funds per state in order to provide resources for adults with learning disabilities. This includes resources to help them learn basic life skills in order to provide for themselves. ABE programs also provide help for adults who lack a high school diploma or an equivalent. These programs teach skills to help adults get into the workforce or into a further level of education. There is a certain pathway that these adults and instructors should follow in order to ensure these adults have the abilities needed to succeed in life. Some ABE programs offer GED preparation programs to support adults through the process to get a GED. It is important to note that ABE programs do not always have the expected outcome on things like employment. Participants in ABE programs are given tools to help them succeed and get a job but, employment is dependent on more than just a guarantee of a job post-ABE. Employment varies based on the level of growth a participant experiences in an ABE program, the personality and behavior of the participant, and the job market they are entering into following completion of an ABE program.
Recommended Reading: How Much Do You Get On Disability In California
How Do You Teach Intellectual Disability Students
Instructional Strategies for Students with Cognitive Disabilities
Developmental Monitoring And Screening
A childs growth and development are followed through a partnership between parents and health care professionals. At each well-child visit, the doctor looks for developmental delays or problems and talks with the parents about any concerns the parents might have. This is called developmental monitoring.
Any problems noticed during developmental monitoring should be followed up with developmental screening. Developmental screening is a short test to tell if a child is learning basic skills when he or she should, or if there are delays.
If a child has a developmental delay, it is important to get help as soon as possible. Early identification and intervention can have a significant impact on a childs ability to learn new skills, as well as reduce the need for costly interventions over time.
You May Like: Medically Retired Military Pay Calculator
Relationship Between Learning Disabilties And Other Disorders
While the diagnosis of LD occurs once a child has been attending school, LD may have been preceded by a language delay, which can increase the risk of later developing LD. In early years, you might notice that your child has difficulty quickly processing what is heard or has difficulty finding the right words and organizing thoughts when asked to respond.
Learning disabilities are also commonly associated with many medical conditions, beyond those identified above in the intellectual disabilities section. For example, children with spina bifida often have math-related learning difficulties. In addition, children who are born prematurely are at increased risk for LD, as are those with epilepsy and other neurologic conditions. The particular challenge for children here is that because of the complexity of their neurological and medical needs, LD may be less easily identified or overlooked.
All of this can be scary and overwhelming to think about as a parent. Keep in mind you have a team in your clinician or school that is ready and willing to support your child and help them succeed. There are many school supports available for students with disabilities! Be open about your concerns and questions your child can be successful and feel good about themselves with the right support! There are also plenty of informational resources available to help get you started if your child has just been diagnosed with a learning disability!
What Types Of Intellectual Disabilities Are Covered By Ndis
Applying for funding is the only way to figure out whether your disability or your family members disability meets the requirements of the NDIS but there are certain disabilities and levels of disability that are more likely to be approved. An intellectual disability that has been professionally diagnosed, and has been determined as moderate, severe or profound is most likely covered by NDIS funding.
The person has to have an IQ of 55 points or less, and severe difficulties with adaptive functioning. With autism, it has to be diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team who are experienced in assessing Pervasive Developmental Disorders, and it must be determined as severity level 2 or 3 by using the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria.
Also Check: How To Increase Your Va Disability Rating
Its On Your Terms And Easily Works In With Your Routine
Routines are important to everyone, whether you have a disability or not. They help you manage your time and help you get things done that matter to you.
Online learning programs can give you a sense of achievement. They break things down into smaller, simpler steps so you can learn new things without feeling overwhelmed. You can work through as many or as few steps as you like, depending on how it fits into your day.
It Helps Improve Tech Skills
As a bonus, online learning also helps us learn more about using computers and other technological devices. By regularly logging into a course and following the steps, you are not only becoming fitter and stronger, or a better cook, but also a better tech-user.
So are you ready to get started? Ready to learn something new? Everybody still in their pyjamas? Ok, lets go have some fun online learning at home!
You May Like: How To Increase Your Va Disability Rating
Parents Who Understand The Key Difference Between Learning Disabilities And Intellectual Disabilities Can Find The Best Possible Treatment For Their Child
As children with disabilities develop, they can be lumped into a single category by well-meaning caregivers and teachers. This mistake is particularly common with learning disabilities and intellectual disabilities.
Children with both kinds of disabilities can thrive academically and socially, especially when the adults in their lives accommodate their unique needs. The following information will help you understand the difference between a learning disability and an intellectual disability. You can then use this knowledge to find the right learning or intellectual disability treatment options in Little Rock for your family.
What Are The Most Common Causes
The most common causes of intellectual disabilities are:
Genetic conditions. Sometimes an intellectual disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. Examples of genetic conditions are Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and phenylketonuria .
Complications during pregnancy. An intellectual disability can result when the baby does not develop inside the mother properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the babys cells divide. A woman who drinks alcohol or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with an intellectual disability.
Problems during birth. If there are complications during labor and birth, such as a baby not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have an intellectual disability.
Diseases or toxic exposure. Diseases like whooping cough, the measles, or meningitis can cause intellectual disabilities. They can also be caused by extreme malnutrition, not getting appropriate medical care, or by being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury.
We know that intellectual disability is not contagious: you cant catch an intellectual disability from anyone else. We also know its not a type of mental illness, like depression. There are no cures for intellectual disability. However, children with intellectual disabilities can learn to do many things. They may just need take more time or learn differently than other children.
Don’t Miss: Va Sciatica Rating
Types Of Learning Disabilities
Learning disabilities are due to genetic and/or neurobiological factors that alter brain functioning in a manner which affects one or more cognitive processes related to learning. These processing problems can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. They can also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract reasoning, long or short term memory and attention. It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individuals life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace.
Since difficulties with reading, writing and/or math are recognizable problems during the school years, the signs and symptoms of learning disabilities are most often diagnosed during that time. However, some individuals do not receive an evaluation until they are in post-secondary education or adults in the workforce. Other individuals with learning disabilities may never receive an evaluation and go through life, never knowing why they have difficulties with academics and why they may be having problems in their jobs or in relationships with family and friends.
Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps of intellectual disability of emotional disturbance or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages.