Box 4how It Feels To Have Autism
If you have an autistic-spectrum disorder the world you inhabit is a very scary place. If you cannot predict what other people may be thinking or feeling, any change in your normal routine can throw you into a panic. A new school escort, school bus, or teacher can precipitate an outburst of extreme agitation. Problems filtering out sensory information can make some places intolerable. In a supermarket it may be the hum from the overhead strip lights, the fans in the fridges, the echoing of voices, the hordes of strange unreadable people or the fact that you cannot predict how long you will have to endure the outing before you are returned to the safety of your home.
A screaming fit or aggression will usually lead to you being removed to a place you feel safe. To prevent such experiences you may refuse to leave the house, strip off your clothes or work yourself up into such a state that you vomit.
Auditory And Visual Processing Problems: The Importance Of The Ears And Eyes
The eyes and the ears are the primary means of delivering information to the brain, a process sometimes called input. If either the eyes or the ears arent working properly, learning can suffer.
Auditory processing disorder Professionals may refer to the ability to hear well as auditory processing skills or receptive language. The ability to hear things correctly greatly impacts the ability to read, write, and spell. An inability to distinguish subtle differences in sound make it difficult to sound out words and understand the basic concepts of reading and writing.
Visual processing disorder Problems in visual perception include missing subtle differences in shapes, reversing letters or numbers, skipping words, skipping lines, misperceiving depth or distance, or having problems with eyehand coordination. Professionals may refer to the work of the eyes as visual processing. Visual perception can affect motor skills, reading comprehension, and math.
|Common types of learning disorders|
|TYPE OF DISORDER|
|Visual Processing Disorder Difficulty interpreting visual information||Reading, math, maps, charts, symbols, pictures|
Risperidone For Adhd In People With Intellectual Disabilities
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is more common in people with intellectual disability than in the general population. As in the general population, ADHD adversely affects the ability to learn and is associated with behavioural disturbance, and therefore any intervention to reduce these symptoms is important.
Risperidone is a newer atypical antipsychotic medication, prescribed to people with ID for many reasons, including disruptive behaviour, ADHD and psychosis. Most of the research into using risperidone for hyperactivity or disruptive behaviour has been performed in people with autism who do not have a clear diagnosis of ADHD. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of risperidone in people with intellectual disability and ADHD.
No trials were found, and therefore there is no randomised controlled trial evidence to support or warn against the use of risperidone in this group of people. It is important that this reseearch question is answered as many people with intellectual disability and ADHD are prescribed this medication.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is increasingly recognised as occurring in people with intellectual disability , although treatment of ADHD in this population has not ben tested widely. Risperidone has been used to treat ADHD in people with ID, although the evidence for its effectiveness is unclear.
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Signs And Symptoms Of Learning Disabilities: Ages 10
- Difficulty with reading comprehension or math skills.
- Trouble with open-ended test questions and word problems.
- Dislikes reading and writing avoids reading aloud.
- Poor handwriting.
- Poor organizational skills .
- Trouble following classroom discussions and expressing thoughts aloud.
- Spells the same word differently in a single document.
Paying attention to developmental milestones can help you identify learning disorders
Paying attention to normal developmental milestones for toddlers and preschoolers is very important. Early detection of developmental differences may be an early signal of a learning disability and problems that are spotted early can be easier to correct.
A developmental lag might not be considered a symptom of a learning disability until your child is older, but if you recognize it when your child is young, you can intervene early. You know your child better than anyone else does, so if you think there is a problem, it doesnt hurt to get an evaluation. You can also ask your pediatrician for a developmental milestones chart or access one in the Get more help section below.
International Classification Of Diseases
In the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems by the World Health Organization, the symptoms of hyperkinetic disorder were analogous to ADHD in the DSM-5. When a conduct disorder is present, the condition was referred to as hyperkinetic conduct disorder. Otherwise, the disorder was classified as disturbance of activity and attention, other hyperkinetic disorders or hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified. The latter was sometimes referred to as hyperkinetic syndrome.
In the implementation version of , the disorder is classified under 6A05 , and hyperkinetic disorder no longer exists. The defined subtypes are similar to those of the DSM-5: predominantly inattentive presentation predominantly hyperactive-impulsive presentation combined presentation . However, the ICD-11 includes two residual categories for individuals who do not entirely match any of the defined subtypes: other specified presentation where the clinician includes detail on the individuals presentation and presentation unspecified where the clinician does not provide detail.
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When Will An Individual With An Intellectual Disability Catch
Individuals with an intellectual disability often acquire and learn information at a slower rate than their peers. Children with an intellectual disability, particularly a mild intellectual disability, may keep pace with peers academically until the second or third grade. However, as the demands on reasoning and problem-solving increase, the gap in learning increases as well. Although individuals with an intellectual disability may not catch-up to their peers, they will continue to learn and acquire new information and therefore require strong supports in place to help accomplish their goals.
Filing For Social Security Disability With An Adhd Diagnosis
We have already discussed that your ADHD subtype will need to be the combined type meaning that you have both the inattentive and hyperactive symptoms to qualify for disability benefits. It can be difficult to accurately complete your application, gather the necessary medical records, and thoroughly present your case and evidence to the SSA. In most cases, it is wise to consult the help of a disability attorney when attempting to get SSDI benefits with an ADHD diagnosis. A disability attorney can help sift through your medical records and tell you exactly what you must prove to get approved for benefits.
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What Should You Do If You Or Your Childs Teacher Or Physician Suspects A Learning Disability
Parents should formally request testing through their school system. Schools are required to evaluate a child if he or she is suspected of having a disability that is affecting his or her learning or educational performance. This evaluation is provided free of charge to families and must, by law, involve more than one standardized test or procedure.
It is important that school personnel, families, and the family physician work together to establish the diagnosis and treatment plan for children with learning disabilities. The sooner learning disabilities are detected, the better, so the child can start receiving the educational help he or she needs.
Do People Grow Out Of Learning Disorders
All types of learning disorders can be managed with professional help.
Contrary to what 48% of parents may believe, however, you cannot grow out of a learning disorder on your own.
Seeking professional help can assist you in developing new skills that make coping easier. It can also lead you to improve specific challenges you may be facing.
A mental health professional can also help you work on the potential distress a learning disorder may cause you.
There are many ways to treat learning disorders. Some include:
- occupational therapy
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Learning Disabilities And Adhd
Learning disabilities affect how you understand, remember, and respond to new information. They can cause problems in several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not a learning disability, but it definitely can affect a persons ability to learn. And if you have ADHD, theres a pretty good chance that you may also have a learning disability.
Experts think a combination of factors causes learning disabilities and ADHD, including your genes and the environment around you. For example, lead in drinking water sometimes found in old homes can play a role.
Whatever the causes, having a learning disability or ADHD doesnt mean you cant do really well in life. In fact, lots of famous people with learning issues or ADHD from cartoonist Walt Disney to clothing designer Tommy Hilfiger went on to fantastic success. Keep reading to learn more about living with learning disabilities and ADHD.
- Learning disabilities
What Every Parent Should Know
Children with specific learning disabilities are eligible for special education services or accommodations at school under the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act external icon and an anti-discrimination law known as Section 504.external icon The U.S. Department of Education issued a Dear Colleague letterpdf iconexternal icon providing clarification to both parents and practitioners about ensuring a high-quality education for children with specific learning disabilities, including children with dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
Adhd Learning Disability It May Be Both
Getting appropriate and effective treatment for a condition depends on getting an accurate diagnosis. But if two or more conditions such as ADHD and learning disorders exhibit similar symptoms, or when those conditions co-occur, accurate or differential diagnosis can be challenging. What is the relationship between learning disorders and ADHD, and what does that mean to you?
Learning challenges in ADHD
- interrupts or intrudes on others
What is a learning disability?
ADHD is not, in itself, a learning disability , but its behavioral manifestations impair the persons ability to learn. For that reason, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has defined the term Specific Learning Disability as:
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. Such term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
Specific Learning Disorder
The DSM-5 lists subtypes of impairment in learning disorders:
When ADHD and learning disorders co-occur
So If An Intellectual Disability Is Considered A Slower Pace Of Learning Then Why Is It Not Called A Learning Disability
There is often confusion regarding the difference between a learning and intellectual disability. Children with a learning disability often have select deficits with learning in specific academic domains . These children demonstrate stronger performance on IQ measures than children with an intellectual disability. The long-term implications may be different for an individual with a learning disability versus an intellectual disability as well. Individuals with a learning disability do not often have the same level of adaptive impairments as someone with an intellectual disability. These adaptive impairments often lead individuals with an intellectual disability to require long-term supports, where this is not the same for someone with a learning disability.
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How Are Learning Disabilities Treated
Learning disabilities are treated educationally, preferably with early intervention. An educational specialist can teach effective learning strategies to help a child overcome his or her learning problems. In addition to ensuring that schools provide diagnostic testing, federal laws require that remedial services be provided to all children who qualify for them. Private tutoring may also be beneficial to maximize progress. Repeating a grade is typically not recommended and may be associated with poor long term outcomes.
Children and their families may benefit from psychological counseling. Understanding and emotional support are needed for children with learning disabilities so they can feel good about themselves. It is also essential to provide opportunities for success in areas where the child may shine. Finally, children with learning disabilities sometimes have problems with peer relationships and may benefit from counseling to help improve their social skills.
Learning disabilities are not treated medically however, children with learning disabilities who are also diagnosed with a co-existing disorder such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may benefit from medication. Physicians should follow the academic progress of their patients as part of their overall medical management.
Treating Both Adhd And Ld
It is important to treat both ADHD and LDs. For example, if your child is on medication to help with their ADHD, their learning disability problems will still persist. Or if they are receiving assistance for their LD, they will not get the full benefit if they are struggling with their focus and impulsivity.
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What Other Problems Might Children With Learning Disabilities Have
About 20 percent of children with learning disabilities also have attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder . Children with learning disabilities may become frustrated, lose interest in school, and avoid challenges. They may have low self-esteem and emotional problems, such as withdrawal, anxiety, depression, or aggression. It is also common for children with learning disabilities to have social problems. Children with undiagnosed learning disabilities can become angry and frustrated. These feelings may lead to emotional problems.
What Strategies Can Help An Adult With Adhd Succeed In The Workplace
If you struggle at your job, it may be because your job requires strong organization, focus and decision-making skillsthe very skills that people with ADHD struggle with. Your healthcare provider can help. Ask your provider for referral to other professionals, such as a professional ADHD Coach, who can offer the following tactics that can help you thrive at your job:
- Time-management training to help get to work on time, handle tasks and attend meetings at designated times and meet deadlines.
- Relaxation and stress management training to help cope with new and difficult situations and people.
- Occupational therapy to teach strategies for organizing home and work activities.
- Job coaching or mentoring to support better working relationships and improve on-the-job performance.
What questions should I ask my childs healthcare provider about ADHD?
- Does my child have a learning disability in addition to ADHD?
- What type of ADHD does my child have?
- Does my child have a psychiatric illness in addition to ADHD?
- How do I explain to my child what ADHD is?
- Whats the best medicine for my child?
- How do I improve my childs self-esteem and self-efficacy?
- How do I talk to my childs teachers about his/her ADHD?
- How do I judge if a medication is worth the side effects that come with it?
- What are the side effects of the prescribed medications?
- What are my childs strengths? What are my childs weaknesses?
What questions should I ask my healthcare provider about ADHD?
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For Parents And Caregivers Of Children With Adhd
Children with symptoms of ADHD should be referred to and evaluated by a mental health professional who specializes in treating children, unless your primary care doctor has experience in treating this disorder. The diagnostic evaluation should include behavioral observation in the classroom and at home. A comprehensive treatment plan should be developed with the family, and, whenever possible, the child should be involved in making treatment decisions. Educational testing should be performed when learning disabilities are present.
Treatment for ADHD is effective for most children. Early identification, diagnosis and treatment help children reach their full potential. The most effective treatments for ADHD include a combination of medication, behavioral therapy, and parental support and education. Nine out of 10 children respond to medication, and 50 percent of children who do not respond to an initial medication will respond to a second. When ADHD co-occurs with another disorder, such as depression or anxiety, a combination of medication and psychotherapy is shown to be particularly effective. Although the value of medication has been well-documented, parents should feel free to discuss any concerns about medication use with their childs doctor. Click here for a guide to medications used in the treatment of childhood ADHD.
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What Causes Intellectual Or Cognitive Impairments
Intellectual or cognitive impairments can start any time before a child reaches the age of 18 years. Persons who have intellectual disabilities may have other impairments as well. Examples of coexisting conditions may include: cerebral palsy, seizure disorders, vision impairment, hearing loss, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder . Persons with severe intellectual disabilities are more likely to have additional limitations than persons with milder intellectual disabilities .
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Children With Learning Disabilities Can And Do Succeed
It can be tough to face the possibility that your child has a learning disorder. No parent wants to see their child suffer. You may wonder what it could mean for your childs future, or worry about how they will make it through school. Perhaps youre concerned that by calling attention to your childs learning problems they might be labeled slow or assigned to a less challenging class.
But the important thing to remember is that most kids with learning disabilities are just as smart as everyone else. They just need to be taught in ways that are tailored to their unique learning styles. By learning more about learning disabilities in general, and your childs learning difficulties in particular, you can help pave the way for success at school and beyond.