What Can Cause A Learning Disability
A learning disability occurs when the brain is still developing . Several things can cause a learning disability.
Before birth things can happen to the central nervous system that can cause a learning disability. A child can be born with a learning disability if the mother has an accident or illness while she is pregnant, or if the unborn baby develops certain genes.
Genes are chemicals in our bodies that contain information about us, like how we look.
A person can be born with a learning disability if he or she does not get enough oxygen during childbirth, has trauma to the head, or is born too early.
After birth, a learning disability can be caused by early childhood illnesses, accidents and seizures.
Myth Vs Reality About Learning Disabilities
Myth 1. People with LD are not very smart.Reality. Kids with learning disabilities are just as smart as other kids. Intelligence has nothing to do with LD. In fact, people with LD have average to above average intelligence. Many have intellectual, artistic, or other abilities that permit them to be defined as gifted. Studies indicate that as many as 33% of students with LD are gifted.
Myth 2. LD is just an excuse for irre-sponsible, unmotivated, or lazy people.Reality. LD is caused by neurological impairments, not character flaws. For some people with LD, the effort required to get through a day can be exhausting in and of itself. The motivation required to do what others take for granted is enormous. Learning disabilities are problems in processing words or information, causing otherwise bright and capable children to have difficulty learning. The disabilities involve languagereading, writing, speaking, and/or listening.
Myth 6. Adults with LD cannot succeed in higher education.Reality. More and more adults with LD are going to college or university and succeeding. With the proper accommodations and support, adults with learning disabilities can be successful at higher education.
Question: Whats The Difference Between A Learning Disability And An Intellectual Disability
In the U.S. these terms have very different meanings. An intellectual disability describes below-average IQ and a lack of skills needed for daily living. This condition used to be called mental retardation.
A learning disability refers to weaknesses in certain academic skills. Reading, writing and math are the main ones.
Several causes need to be ruled out for a child to be identified with this type of disability. Her learning challenges cant be caused by low intelligence. Problems with hearing or vision also need to be ruled out. The same goes for a lack of educational opportunity.
One way parents can get confused between the two is by searching online. Thats because the British call learning disabilities learning difficulties. And they call intellectual disabilities learning disabilities.
Both types of disabilities affect learning. And both are covered by special education law. But theyre not the same thing. This is one of the most common misconceptions about learning disabilities in the U.S.
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Research Into Positive Traits
Possible positive traits of ADHD are a new avenue of research, and therefore limited. Studies are being done on whether ADHD symptoms could potentially be beneficial.
A 2020 review found that creativity may be associated with ADHD symptoms, particularly divergent thinking and quantity of creative achievements, but not with the disorder of ADHD itself â i.e. it has not been found in patients diagnosed with the disorder, only in patients with subclinical symptoms or those that possess traits associated with the disorder. Divergent thinking is the ability to produce creative solutions which differ significantly from each other and consider the issue from multiple perspectives. Those with ADHD symptoms could be advantaged in this form of creativity as they tend to have diffuse attention, allowing rapid switching between aspects of the task under consideration flexible associative memory, allowing them to remember and use more distantly-related ideas which is associated with creativity and impulsivity, which causes people with ADHD symptoms to consider ideas which others may not have. However, people with ADHD may struggle with convergent thinking, which is a process of creativity that requires sustained effort and consistent use of executive functions to weed out solutions which arent creative from a single area of inquiry. People with the actual disorder often struggle with executive functioning.
Learning Disabilities In Language
Language and communication learning disabilities involve the ability to understand or produce spoken language. Language is also considered an output activity because it requires organizing thoughts in the brain and calling upon the right words to verbally explain or communicate something.
Signs of a language-based learning disorder involve problems with verbal language skills, such as the ability to retell a story, the fluency of speech, and the ability to understand the meaning of words, directions, and the like.
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Environmental Exposures And Developmental Disability
Research has found associations between environmental toxicants and developmental disabilities through both direct and indirect pathways, with the indirect associations through genetic mutation, preterm birth and intrauterine retardation.
Prenatal and childhood exposures that are associated with developmental disabilities are summarized here. This list of environmental toxicants is not exhaustive and does not include other exposures, such as electromagnetic radiation, linked to neurodevelopmental problems.
A âstrongâ association indicates a known causal link between the exposure and a condition while a âgoodâ association indicates a well-documented association without a well-documented human causal link. Unless noted otherwise, information is from CHE’s Toxicant and Disease Database.
|Chemical Toxicants Associated with Development Disabilities|
- Tert-Amyl methyl ether
Some associations with limited or conflicting evidence are listed in CHE’s Toxicant and Disease Database.
Learning Disabilities In Writing
Learning disabilities in writing can involve the physical act of writing or the mental activity of comprehending information. Basic writing disorder refers to physical difficulty forming words and letters. Expressive writing disability indicates a struggle to organize thoughts on paper.
Symptoms of a written language learning disability revolve around the act of writing. They include problems with:
- Neatness and consistency of writing.
- Accurately copying letters and words.
- Spelling consistency.
- Writing organization and coherence.
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When Will An Individual With An Intellectual Disability Catch
Individuals with an intellectual disability often acquire and learn information at a slower rate than their peers. Children with an intellectual disability, particularly a mild intellectual disability, may keep pace with peers academically until the second or third grade. However, as the demands on reasoning and problem-solving increase, the gap in learning increases as well. Although individuals with an intellectual disability may not catch-up to their peers, they will continue to learn and acquire new information and therefore require strong supports in place to help accomplish their goals.
Intellectual Disability: What To Look For
Children with intellectual disability learn more slowly than typically developing children. These learning deficits generally apply to many kinds of learning and across different developmental stages. Young children with the disorder may learn to sit up, crawl, walk or talk later than other children. Most have difficulties developing communication skills as well as trouble interpreting and applying new information. These children often have trouble keeping up in school.
Older children with intellectual disability may demonstrate deficits in memory, social, and problem-solving skills. A lack of social inhibitions may also be a sign that a child has this disordernot because the child is acting out or rebelling, but because he has difficulties interpreting the signs as to what kinds of behavior are appropriate in a given situation.
Children with intellectual disability often have difficulty with adaptive skills, or tasks of daily living, that typically children do not experience.
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Can An Intellectual Disability Be Caused By Other Disorders Like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Or Language Difficulties
Although ADHD and language disorders do not cause an intellectual disability, it is important to consider these factors when diagnosing a child with an intellectual disability. Difficulties with attention and language comprehension and production are often seen in children and adults with an intellectual disability.However, if attention difficulties are significant even when a child is placed within a structured learning environment, they may meet criteria for ADHD as well. Language is often considered when making the diagnosis of an intellectual disability. Specifically, it is important to consider if a childs overall cognitive limitations are due to difficulties accessing language, only. This why IQ scores alone do not determine if a child has an intellectual disability.
What Should You Do If You Or Your Childs Teacher Or Physician Suspects A Learning Disability
Parents should formally request testing through their school system. Schools are required to evaluate a child if he or she is suspected of having a disability that is affecting his or her learning or educational performance. This evaluation is provided free of charge to families and must, by law, involve more than one standardized test or procedure.
It is important that school personnel, families, and the family physician work together to establish the diagnosis and treatment plan for children with learning disabilities. The sooner learning disabilities are detected, the better, so the child can start receiving the educational help he or she needs.
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Is A Learning Disability Considered A Developmental Disability
, Testing for Intellectual Disabilities, think, or camps for learning disabilities that SSI payments can help pay for, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, While both IDDs and LDs can impact a child or adults ability to learn and develop new skills, which affects every aspect of how the brain learns and understands, therapy, 2015c), In 2017, which is why they are commonly addressed together, IDEAs Definition of Learning Disability Our nations special education law, These problems have to do with the way the brain gets, autism is a developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and affects a persons ability to communicate and interact with others.
Learning Disabilities In Adulthood
A common misconception about those with learning disabilities is that they outgrow it as they enter adulthood. This is often not the case and most adults with learning disabilities still require resources and care to help manage their disability. One resource available is the Adult Basic Education programs, at the state level. ABE programs are allotted certain amounts of funds per state in order to provide resources for adults with learning disabilities. This includes resources to help them learn basic life skills in order to provide for themselves. ABE programs also provide help for adults who lack a high school diploma or an equivalent. These programs teach skills to help adults get into the workforce or into a further level of education. There is a certain pathway that these adults and instructors should follow in order to ensure these adults have the abilities needed to succeed in life. Some ABE programs offer GED preparation programs to support adults through the process to get a GED. It is important to note that ABE programs do not always have the expected outcome on things like employment. Participants in ABE programs are given tools to help them succeed and get a job but, employment is dependent on more than just a guarantee of a job post-ABE. Employment varies based on the level of growth a participant experiences in an ABE program, the personality and behavior of the participant, and the job market they are entering into following completion of an ABE program.
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Tips On How To Interact With People Who Have An Intellectual Or Developmental Disability
- Dont assume what a person can or cannot do.
- Use plain language and speak in short sentences.
- Make sure the person understands what youve said.
- If you cant understand whats being said, dont pretend. Just ask again.
- Provide one piece of information at a time.
- Be supportive and patient.
- Speak directly to the person, not to their companion or attendant.
How Common Is Intellectual Disability
intellectual disabilityintellectual disabilityIntellectual disabilitycommonSteps to help your intellectually disabled child include:
There are a number of common characteristics that may have a significant impact on an individuals learning, including:
- difficulty understanding new information.
Common Developmental Disabilities in Children
- Intellectual disabilities.
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A Child Who Is Both On The Autism Spectrum And Has Co
Very high level, complex needs, in this context, may not be consequent of Autism of itself, but rather consequent of the child having intellectual disability and / or the combined challenges of both Intellectual disability and Autism.Identifying a co-concurring Intellectual Disability in an Autistic child is important to best support the individual learning needs and development of independence skills of that child. An Intellectual Disabled Autistic child will, for example, benefit from more repetition, including pre-teaching and re-teaching, particularly in intellectual functioning areas, compared to other Autistic children their age.
Importantly, presuming competence that is assuming a person has capacity to think, understand and learn is the only respectful path when interacting with both Autistic and / or Intellectually Disabled individuals. With the right supports, all individuals are capable of growing, learning and developing and, all individuals, irrelevant of intellectual challenges, have their own personalities and preferences which should also be respected.
United States And Canada
In the United States and Canada, the terms learning disability and learning disorder refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason, organize information, and do math. People with learning disabilities generally have intelligence that is average or higher.
Legislation in the United States
The Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act 1973, effective May 1977, guarantees certain rights to people with disabilities, especially in the cases of education and work, such being in schools, colleges and university settings.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to the age of 21. Considered as a civil rights law, states are not required to participate.
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What Is A Developmental Disability Diagnosed As A Nervous System Disorders
These are birth defects that affect the functioning of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous system, which can influence intelligence and learning. These conditions can also cause certain behavioral disorders, speech or language difficulties, convulsions, and movement disorders. There are some relatively common nervous system disabilities that you have probably already heard of or possibly know someone who has been diagnosed with.
The first is Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities . This term describes a certain range of scores on an IQ test. IDDs can result from a number of conditions. The most common conditions being Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. Children are born with these conditions.
Down syndrome occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome has a specific set of mental, medical and physical characteristics.
Fragile X mental retardation is caused by one specific gene that causes the body to produce low amounts or none of a certain protein. Without this important protein, the brain does not develop normally. Symptoms of Fragile X syndrome occur because the mutated gene cannot produce enough of a protein that is needed by the bodys cells, especially cells in the brain, to develop and function normally.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Defined by the CDC as conditions which occur in individuals whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are marked by physical, behavioral and learning problems. These intellectual and behavioral problems often cause lifelong issues, including problems with mental health, substance use, getting and keeping a job, and the law.
Cause and Risk Factors
The only cause of FASD is prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol consumed at any stage of pregnancyâincluding before a woman knows she’s pregnantâcan cause FASD. Thus there is no pregnancy period in which it is safe to drink alcohol.
Unlike the other disabilities discussed on this page, FASDs are completely preventable. Despite this, three out of four women who want to get pregnant as soon as possible report drinking. This puts more than 3 million women in the US at risk of exposing their developing babies to alcohol.
Weighted data from the CDC from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System click to zoom
Within the 2011-2013 pregnant population in the US, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates that one in 10 women consumed alcohol, and as many as two percent to five percent of first-grade students in the United States might have an FASD.
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Getting Help For Children With Learning Disabilities
When it comes to learning disabilities, its not always easy to know what to do and where to find help. Turning to specialists who can pinpoint and diagnose the problem is, of course, important. You will also want to work with your childs school to make accommodations for your child and get specialized academic help. But dont overlook your own role. You know your child better than anyone else, so take the lead in looking into your options, learning about new treatments and services, and overseeing your childs education.
Learn the specifics about your childs learning disability. Learn about your childs type of learning disability. Find out how the disability affects the learning process and what cognitive skills are involved. Its easier to evaluate learning techniques if you understand how the learning disability affects your child.
Research treatments, services, and new theories. Along with knowing about the type of learning disability your child has, educate yourself about the most effective treatment options available. This can help you advocate for your child at school and pursue treatment at home.
Pursue treatment and services at home. Even if the school doesnt have the resources to treat your childs learning disability optimally, you can pursue these options on your own at home or with a therapist or tutor.