Disability In Different Diagnostic Groups
The schizophrenia group consisted of 70 patients, of whom 80% were from a rural background. The mean age of this sample was 31.43±9.42 years, the mean duration of illness 7.07±5.39 years and the mean years of formal education completed in the group was 8.40±5.237 .
Correlation studies to measure the relation of disability on the IDEAS scale to the severity of illness as measured by PANSS showed a strong positive correlation with IDEAS-GS on all the three components of the PANSS scale. This correlation was seen to be stronger for the Negative syndrome scores , then for the Positive syndrome scores . The correlation between the General Psychopathology scores and IDEAS Global score was also highly significant .
Emerging Issues In Mental Health And Mental Disorders
New mental health issues have emerged among some special populations, such as:
- Veterans who have experienced physical and mental trauma
- People in communities with large-scale psychological trauma caused by natural disasters
- Older adults, as the understanding and treatment of dementia and mood disorders continues to improve
Infection Disease And Toxins
Several psychiatric disorders have often been associated with microbial pathogens, particularly viruses. There have been some suggestions of associations from animal studies that have inconsistent evidence for infectious and immune mechanisms. Some human disorders, infectious disease models in psychiatry are reported to have not yet shown significant promise except in isolated cases.
There have been some inconsistent findings of links between infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and human mental disorders such as schizophrenia, with the direction of causality unclear. Several diseases of the white matter can cause symptoms of mental disorder.
Poorer general health has been found among individuals with severe mental illnesses, thought to be due to direct and indirect factors including diet, bacterial infections, substance use, exercise levels, effects of medications, socioeconomic disadvantages, lowered help-seeking, or treatment adherence, or poorer healthcare provision. Some chronic general medical conditions have been linked to some aspects of mental disorders, such as AIDS-related psychosis.
The research on Lyme disease caused by a deer tick and toxins is expanding the link between bacterial infections and mental illness.
Research shows that infections and exposure to toxins such as HIV and streptococcus cause dementia and OCD. The infections or toxins that trigger a change in the brain chemistry can develop into a mental disorder.
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Why Is Mental Health Important
Mental disorders are among the most common causes of disability. The resulting disease burden of mental illness is among the highest of all diseases. In any given year, an estimated 18.1% of U.S. adults ages 18 years or older suffered from any mental illness and 4.2% suffered from a seriously debilitating mental illness.1;Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability in the United States, accounting for 18.7% of all years of life lost to disability and premature mortality.2;Moreover, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for the deaths of approximately 43,000 Americans in 2014.3,4
Mental health and physical health are closely connected. Mental health plays a major role in peoples ability to maintain good physical health. Mental illnesses, such as depression and anxiety, affect peoples ability to participate in health-promoting behaviors. In turn, problems with physical health, such as chronic diseases, can have a serious impact on mental health and decrease a persons ability to participate in treatment and recovery.5
How Does Mental Illness Affect The Brain
The brain controls just about everything in our body. It controls memory, learning, the senses, and emotion. It also controls other parts of the body, including muscles, organs, and blood vessels.;
It contains billions of nerve cells that must communicate and work together for the body to function normally. When there are any abnormalities in the brain, it can result in mental illness. Connections between nerve cells along certain pathways or circuits in the brain can lead to problems with how the brain processes information.;
This can result in abnormal mood, thinking, perception, or behavior. Additionally, studies have shown that changes in the size or shape of different parts of the brain may be responsible for causing some mental illnesses.
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Ending The Stigmatization Against Those With Mental Illness
Ending The Stigmatization Against Those With Mental Illness By: Georgia Canfield 4/25/16Dr. GullianAuthors Goetzel, Ozminkowski, Sederer, and Mark estimated that around one in five Americans will be affected by some sort of mental illness in their lifetime . This study indicates that millions of Americans suffer from mental illness, which is often overlooked and still not fully understood. From a sociological
Can Your Mental Health Change Over Time
Yes, its important to remember that a persons mental health can change over time, depending on many factors.; When the demands placed on a person exceed their resources and coping abilities, their mental health could be impacted. For example, if someone is working long hours, caring for a relative, or experiencing economic hardship, they may experience poor mental health.
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Is Mental Illness A Genetic Trait
As we briefly discussed above, there is a connection between genetics and mental illness. In fact, there are certain mental health disorders that are more likely to be passed on genetically than others. The most common ones are:
- Bipolar disorder
If a family member has one of those mental health disorders, the likeliness that the child will develop a mental health issue, even if it is not the same one that the parent has, is greater. Additionally, if both parents have a mental health disorder, then the child is at an even greater risk.;
While having parents with mental health issues increases the chances that the child might develop a mental health illness, its not a guarantee that it happens. Yes, the child is more susceptible to mental illness.;
However, mental illness itself occurs from not just the interaction of multiple genes, but other factors as well. Things such as stress, abuse, or other repeated traumatic events can all increase the chances that the child might develop a mental health condition.
The Roots Of Mental Illness
How much of mental illness can the biology of the brain explain?
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Diagnosing mental illness isn’t like diagnosing other chronic diseases. Heart disease is identified with the help of blood tests and electrocardiograms. Diabetes is diagnosed by measuring blood glucose levels. But classifying mental illness is a more subjective endeavor. No blood test exists for depression; no X-ray can identify a child at risk of developing bipolar disorder. At least, not yet.
Thanks to new tools in genetics and neuroimaging, scientists are making progress toward deciphering details of the underlying biology of mental disorders. Yet experts disagree on how far we can push this biological model. Are mental illnesses simply physical diseases that happen to strike the brain? Or do these disorders belong to a class all their own?
Eric Kandel, MD, a Nobel Prize laureate and professor of brain science at Columbia University, believes it’s all about biology. “All mental processes are brain processes, and therefore all disorders of mental functioning are biological diseases,” he says. “The brain is the organ of the mind. Where else could be if not in the brain?”
That viewpoint is quickly gaining supporters, thanks in part to Thomas R. Insel, MD, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, who has championed a biological perspective during his tenure at the agency.
A new toolkit
A nuanced view
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Physical Symptoms Of Mental Health Problems
Mental health problems typically do not cause physical symptoms in and of themselves. Depression, however, can indirectly cause weight loss, fatigue and loss of libido, among others. Eating disorders, a separate class of mental health disorders, can cause malnutrition, weight loss, amenorrhea in women, or electrolyte imbalances caused by self-induced vomiting. This makes eating disorders among the most deadly of mental health disorders.
Psychological And Individual Factors Including Resilience
Some clinicians believe that psychological characteristics alone determine mental disorders. Others speculate that abnormal behavior can be explained by a mix of social and psychological factors. In many examples, environmental and psychological triggers complement one another resulting in emotional stress, which in turn activates a mental illness. Each person is unique in how they will react to psychological stressors. What may break one person may have little to no effect on another. Psychological stressors, which can trigger mental illness, are as follows: emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, loss of a significant loved one, neglect, and being unable to relate to others.
The inability to relate to others is also known as emotional detachment. Emotional detachment makes it difficult for an individual to empathize with others or to share their feelings. An emotionally detached person may try to rationalize or apply logic to a situation to which there is no logical explanation. These individuals tend to stress the importance of their independence and maybe a bit neurotic. Oftentimes, the inability to relate to others stems from a traumatic event.
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What Is Mental Illness
A mental illness is a health problem that affects peoples thoughts, mood, behaviour or the way they perceive the world around them. A mental illness causes distress and may affect the persons ability to function at work, in relationships or in everyday tasks.
1 in every 5 Australians about 4 million people suffers from a mental illness in a given year, and almost half the population has suffered a mental disorder at some time in their life.
Mental illnesses can range from mild disorders lasting only a few weeks through to severe illnesses that can be life-long and cause serious disability.
Biological Variables To Consider
Many of the most common mental health disorders are linked to biological factors, particularly abnormal functioning of nerve pathways. However, biological variables are anything physical that cause adverse effects, including genetics, brain defects, prenatal damage, infections, exposure to toxins, and substance abuse. For example, although there is a strong link between depression and environmental factors, a person who has a relative with depression is nearly five times as likely to develop depression themselves. Researchers even isolated a gene prevalent in numerous family members with depression. Overall, scientists believe that around 40 percent of people with depression trace to a genetic link, whereas environmental factors make up the other 60 percent.
Other potential causes include disruption of early fetal development ; long-term substance abuse ; infections ; etc.
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Who Is At Risk From Mental Disorders
Determinants of mental health and mental disorders include not only individual attributes such as the ability to manage one’s thoughts, emotions, behaviours and interactions with others, but also social, cultural, economic, political and environmental factors such as national policies, social protection, standards of living, working conditions, and community support.
Stress, genetics, nutrition, perinatal infections and exposure to environmental hazards are also contributing factors to mental disorders.
Paranoia And Delusional Disorders
Paranoia involves intense anxious or fearful feelings and thoughts often related to persecution, threat, or conspiracy. Paranoia occurs in many mental disorders, but is most often present in psychotic disorders. Paranoia can become delusions, when irrational thoughts and beliefs become so fixed that nothing can convince a person that what they think or feel is not true. When a person has paranoia or delusions, but no other symptoms , they might have what is called a delusional disorder.; Because only thoughts are impacted, a person with delusional disorder can usually work and function in everyday life, however, their lives may be limited and isolated.
Delusional disorder is characterized by irrational or intense belief or suspicion which a person believes to be true. These beliefs may seem outlandish and impossible or fit within the realm of what is possible . Symptoms must last for 1 month or longer in order for someone to be diagnosed with delusional disorder.
Symptoms of paranoia and delusional disorders include intense and irrational mistrust or suspicion, which can bring on sense of fear, anger, and betrayal. Some identifiable beliefs and behaviors of individuals with symptoms of paranoia include mistrust, hypervigilence, difficulty with forgiveness, defensive attitude in response to imagined criticism, preoccupation with hidden motives, fear of being deceived or taken advantage of, inability to relax, or are argumentative.
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What Is The Latest Research On Mental Illness In Children
Due to the historical lack of understanding of this topic, research on mental illness in children is occurring on a number of fronts. In an effort to understand how often childhood mental illnesses occur, a great deal of research is focused on achieving that goal. Understanding more about the protective factors against mental illness is being explored. Ways to improve the access that children have to treatment is another topic of considerable research interest.
Psychotherapy Or Talking Therapies
This type of treatment takes a psychological approach to treating mental illness. Cognitive behavioral therapy, exposure therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy are examples.
Psychiatrists, psychologists, psychotherapists, and some primary care physicians carry out this type of treatment.
It can help people understand the root of their mental illness and start to work on more healthful thought patterns that support everyday living and reduce the risk of isolation and self-harm.
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What Are The Symptoms Of Psychological Disorders
Symptoms of psychological disorders vary based on the specific disorder, but mood and are common. Symptoms can be chronic and relapsing. They can interfere with your ability to interact in society. Some psychological disorders can also cause physical symptoms. For example, panic attacks associated with disorders may have symptoms that look and feel like a . Somatoform disorders, conditions in which symptoms suggest a medical cause but none can be found, frequently involve symptoms of or achiness.
Sign Of Mental Illness In Children
Nightmares are dreams that are threatening and scary. Nearly everyone has had a nightmare from time to time. For trauma survivors, though, nightmares are a common problem. Along with flashbacks and unwanted memories, nightmares are one of the ways in which a trauma survivor may relive the trauma for months or years after the event.
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Exposure To Toxic Substances & Head Injuries
Exposure to toxic substances can cause a variety of health issues Ã¢â¬â migraines, headaches, memory problems, and cognitive dysfunction are a few examples. According to the National Institute of Health, “disruption of brain function may also manifest as subtle or overt alteration in thoughts, moods, or behaviors.” Although there hasn’t been much research about the link between mental illness and exposure to toxins, it’s now on the radar of doctors and mental health professionals Ã¢â¬â so hopefully more information and studies will be available soon.
Injuries in certain areas of brain are also linked to mental illness. This possible cause was first brought into the public eye when questions were raised about how repeated head injuries in football players could affect their overall health. But recent research has shown that even one head injury increases a person’s risk of developing a mental illness Ã¢â¬â especially if the injury occurred during adolescence. In fact, researchers at University of Copenhagen found that, for individuals who had suffered head injuries, the risk factor for schizophrenia increased by 65 percent and the risk for depression increased by 59 percent.
The Novel ‘ The Spirit Level I Came Into Inequality
While reading The Spirit Level I came into conclusion that the inequality in developed countries is great threat to society as a whole. The major issues that are brought up in the book are the inequality between the rich and the poor in developed countries but also the comparison between developing countries. The book dives into several factors that are the effects of the inequality ranging from obesity, teenage birth, life expectancy etc. I would discuss in depth on each of these factors and
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Is It Possible To Prevent Mental Illness In Children
Attempts at prevention of childhood mental illness tends to address both specific and nonspecific risk factors, strengthen protective factors, and use an approach that is appropriate for the child’s age and developmental level. Such programs often use cognitive behavioral and/or interpersonal approaches, as well as family based prevention strategies because research shows that these interventions tend to be the most helpful.
The inverse of most risk factors, protective factors for childhood mental illness include preventing exposure to community violence, having the involvement of supportive adults, strong, consistent family and peer relationships, healthy coping skills, and emotional regulation. Children and adolescents of a mentally ill parent tend to be more resilient when the child is more able to focus on age-appropriate tasks in their lives and on their relationships, as well as being able to understand their parents’ illness. For mentally ill parents, their children seem to be more protected from developing a psychiatric illness when the parent is able to demonstrate a commitment to parenting and to healthy relationships.
Understanding Mental Health And Mental Disorders
The existing model for understanding mental health and mental disorders emphasizes the interaction of social, environmental, and genetic factors throughout the lifespan. In behavioral health, researchers identify:
- Risk factors, which predispose individuals to mental illness
- Protective factors, which protect them from developing mental disorders
Researchers now know that the prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders is inherently interdisciplinary and draws on a variety of different strategies.6
Over the past 20 years, research on the prevention of mental disorders has progressed. The understanding of how the brain functions under normal conditions and in response to stressors, combined with knowledge of how the brain develops over time, has been essential to that progress. The major areas of progress include evidence that:
The progress identified above has led to a stronger understanding of the importance of protective factors. A 2009 Institute of Medicine report advocates for multidisciplinary prevention strategies at the community level that support the development of children in healthy social environments.7;In addition to advancements in the prevention of mental disorders, there continues to be steady progress in treating mental disorders as new drugs and stronger evidence-based outcomes become available.
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