Types Of Learning Disabilities
Dyslexia:www.dyslexia.orgwww.dyslexiaassociation.cawww.dyslexia.caDyscalculia:www.aboutdyscalculia.orgDysgraphia:Dyspraxia:www.dyspraxiausa.orgADHD:www.addititudemag.com/adhd/article/10497Auditory Processing DisordersVisual Processing Disorders: Non-verbal Learning Disorders: www.nldontheweb.org
Episode Two: Supporting Dyslexia Webinar
Discovering Dyslexia Webinar Series Episode Two: Support Systems for Young Dyslexics In this episode we will discuss how a dyslexic person can be supported in the critical areas of their lives – in school, at home and in the workplace. While there are challenges with each one, we will discuss key points and highlight the support systems that are out there waiting to be leveraged. Sara Peden, a Psychologist and dyslexia interventionist from Calgary, will provide an overview of the
A Brief History Of Dyslexia
Reproduced by kind permission of The Psychologist:
From top: Rudolph Berlin, Adolph Kussmaul, William Pringle Morgan, Macdonald Critchley, Sandhya Naidoo, Helen Arkell, Beve Hornsby, Margaret Newton, Marion Welchman, Elaine and Tim Miles, Mary Warnock, Jim Rose
It is 130 years since the term dyslexia was coined by Rudolf Berlin, a German ophthalmologist and professor in Stuttgart. In the course of his practice, Berlin observed the difficulties faced by some of his adult patients in reading the printed word. He could find no problem with their vision. He speculated, therefore, that their difficulties must be caused by some physical change in the brain, even if the nature of this eluded him. The term Berlin used to describe the condition would ultimately become more famous than he. One of the few biographic entries on Berlin describes him, somewhat poignantly, as who named the ship, even though he never became her captain.
Berlin himself had been influenced by the writings of another German, Adolph Kussmaul, a Professor of Medicine at Strassburg, remembered today principally for his work on diabetic ketoacidosis. It was Kussmaul who first identified the kind of difficulties Berlin described, in 1877, entitling them Wortblindheit . To Kussmaul, writes James Hinshelwood, his contemporary, must be given the credit of first recognising the possibility of this inability being met with as an isolated symptom.
Dyslexia, psychology and the rise of modern advocacy
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Dyslexia Affects Education And Work
A child with dyslexia may have trouble processing information, spelling, reading, and understanding word math problems. Adults with dyslexia may find it difficult to remember instructions, copy information, file documents correctly, and communicate with others in both oral and written communications. Both children and adults may struggle with lack of confidence, frustration, confusion, and embarrassment.
However, does the Social Security Administration consider dyslexia a disability?
Teaching Solutions For Dyslexia
Teachers can help dyslexic students in the classroom by being aware of learning difficulties and providing extra time for students to process and learn new material. For example, children can benefit greatly by learning how to read sight words.
These are service words and prepositions that are commonly found in classroom reading materials. Nonetheless, they can be difficult words for dyslexic children to remember as they are less amenable to mnemonic devices. Teaching sight words through extensive repetition via a spelling program is often the best solution.
Allowing students to type assignments when possible is another good strategy. It can help reduce the time a dyslexic child needs to complete assignments by removing the mechanics of writing from the task, and giving them access to spell checkers.
You may also try to teach specific strategies for spelling. Above all, provide plenty of praise. Developing literacy skills is a challenge and your students will need the encouragement. Learn more about teaching students with dyslexia.
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Overcoming Dyslexia: What Does It Take International Dyslexia Association Webinar
Empirical research has identified the characteristics of instruction that help students overcome their reading difficulties. In this second in a series of webinars from the International Dyslexia Association , Dr. Mathes covers not only the basic components of effective instruction, but also how the nature of this instruction changes with each tier of instruction.
What To Expect From Dyslexia
Dyslexia treatment starts with an evaluation that is used todetermine the persons specific disability area. There is no cure for Dyslexia,however there are successful treatments that can help reduce the symptoms. Theseverity of the dyslexia as well as the age at which treatment is startedinfluence the manner in which someone with Dyslexia develops.
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Claiming The Disability Amount Once The Dtc Application Is Approved
You can claim the disability amount on your tax return once the person with the disability is eligible for the DTC.
- To claim the disability amount for your spouse or common-law partner, see line 32600 Amounts transfered from your spouse or common-law partner
If a person was eligible for the DTC for previous years but did not claim the disability amount when they sent their tax return, they can request adjustments for up to 10 years under the CRA’s Taxpayer Relief Provision.
To claim the disability amount for those prior years, you can ask for a reassessment. For more information, go to How to change a return.
See the following chart to know the maximum federal disability amounts and the maximum supplement for children with disabilities for prior years.
Does Ssdi Cover Dyslexia
Jordan noticed her son, Aaron, struggled with reading even simple books. His teacher suggested they test him for dyslexia. Concerned that her son might have this common learning disability, Jordan allowed him to be tested. When the results showed he had dyslexia, the real worries began Jordan did not have the money to pay for the therapy and educational intervention he needed. She wondered whether benefits like Social Security Disability Insurance cover dyslexia?
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Getting A Diagnosis And Getting Treatment
Its important to identify dyslexia as early as possible to prevent a person from experiencing low-self esteem or suffering a lack of confidence due to perceived educational or occupational failure. There is no one size fits all solution for dyslexia treatment and tests are diagnostic to measure performance in literacy and numeracy tasks, and language, memory, visual and cognitive processing skills. When dyslexia is present, individuals need access to a comprehensive support system that provides them with strategy-based solutions to overcome the unique challenges they will face in reading and writing, accommodations that make it easier to perform day-to-day tasks and plenty of encouragement.
Because dyslexic individuals often need to work harder than their peers to achieve the same results, its extremely important to help them stay motivated, even if this means allowing individuals to switch off from time to time or take frequent breaks from a task.
Another approach to motivation is recognizing successful people, including celebrities, who have not let their dyslexia hold them back. Learn what some famous actors, singers, businessmen, athletes and politicians have to say about dyslexia. Interested in understanding more about strategy training for dyslexics? Try this article on how to improve spelling skills.
Support For People With Dyslexia
If your child has dyslexia, they’ll probably need extra educational support from their school.
With appropriate support, there’s usually no reason your child can’t go to a mainstream school, although a small number of children may benefit from attending a specialist school.
Techniques and support that may help your child include:
- occasional 1-to-1 teaching or lessons in a small group with a specialist teacher
- technology like computers and speech recognition software that may make it easier for your child to read and write when they’re a bit older
Universities also have specialist staff who can support young people with dyslexia in higher education.
Technology such as word processors and electronic organisers can be useful for adults, too.
Employers are required to make reasonable adjustments to the workplace to help people with dyslexia, such as allowing extra time for certain tasks.
Read more about how dyslexia is managed.
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Accommodations In The Workplace
Making small changes to the way you work can increase your efficiency and enhance your productivity. It can also reduce anxiety and frustration at the office, which in turn improves working relationships and makes the workplace a more enjoyable environment. Accommodations dont have to be costly. In some instances creating a dyslexia-friendly office can benefit all employees, not just those with a disability. It also helps to promote a culture of tolerance and acceptance and put employees who struggle with a learning disability on more equal footing with their co-workers. Try this list of tips for starters:
Webinar: Discovering Dyslexia Webinar Series Episode Four: Dyslexia And The Future
The world of work is changing, fast. We may not know the jobs of the future. But we know the capabilities that well need. And while machines take over straight line thinking, the world of work will need minds that can think differently. EYs Value of Dyslexia reports found that dyslexics have exactly the minds needed for this new world of work. But while intelligence agencies and businesses globally are now recognising dyslexia as a valuable skill set, understanding of
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Being Found Disabled Without Meeting The Developmental Listing
For a person to be considered disabled without meeting the above listing, he or she must be considered unable to perform any of his or her prior jobs or any other full-time job that exists in the U.S. because of a severe impairment. It is extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible, to receive disability benefits based solely on a diagnosis of dyslexia. That is because people with dyslexia, despite their struggles with reading and writing, are generally able to perform the vast majority of tasks related to performing full-time work. They are usually able to deal well with others, maintain focus and concentration, follow directions, and perform most other work-related tasks. Their symptoms are not the sort that would require them to miss work or take unscheduled breaks.
A person’s chances for receiving disability benefits improve if he or she has another mental or physical impairment that, when combined with dyslexia, prevents full-time work. For example, if an applicant suffers from both ADHD and dyslexia, Social Security would consider the combined impact of both of those impairments, and the applicant would be likely to have multiple limitations. For that reason, people filing for disability benefits should list all of their physical and mental impairments, not just the most important or the most severe.
What Happens In Dyslexia
Most people think that dyslexia causes people to reverse letters and numbers and see words backwards. But reversals happen as a normal part of development, and are seen in many kids until first or second grade.
The main problem in dyslexia is trouble recognizing phonemes . These are the basic sounds of speech . So it’s a struggle to make the connection between the sound and the letter symbol for that sound, and to blend sounds into words.
This makes it hard to recognize short, familiar words or to sound out longer words. It takes a lot of time for a person with dyslexia to sound out a word. Because word reading takes more time and focus, the meaning of the word often is lost, and reading comprehension is poor.
It’s not surprising that people with dyslexia have trouble spelling. They also might have trouble expressing themselves in writing and even speaking. Dyslexia is a language processing disorder, so it can affect all forms of language, spoken or written.
Some people have milder forms of dyslexia, so they may have less trouble in these other areas of spoken and written language. Some people work around their dyslexia, but it takes a lot of effort and extra work. Dyslexia isn’t something that goes away on its own or that a person outgrows. Fortunately, with proper help, most people with dyslexia learn to read. They often find different ways to learn and use those strategies all their lives.
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The Argument For Benefits
In order to argue for dyslexia benefits, youll fall under neurodevelopmental disorders in the Blue Book, a section that covers a range of different conditions including ADHD, Tourettes syndrome and dyscalculia . The listing criteria are the same regardless of whether the person is a child or an adult you must prove that the learning disorder creates significant difficulties in using or picking up academic skills.
Specifically, you have to show that the marked limitation affects at least two of these conditions:
Disability Benefits For Dyslexia
If your condition is severe, then you can apply for the dyslexia disability benefits. For this, you may need assistance and direction from an experienced attorney who has several years of experience in dealing with such matters and understands how to make the most appropriate arguments for you.
A disability lawyerwill have experience in matters of claims, denials, evaluations and he or she will be able to give you better advice on how to proceed. It is advisable to hire one of the finest attorneys who would help you gain the disability benefits which you might require for so long.
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Listing For Developmental Disorders
Neurodevelopmental disorders begin in childhood, although sometimes they are not diagnosed until adulthood. They also include ADHD, learning disabilities, and tic disorders. The listing for neurodevelopmental disorders was added January 27, 2017, so it applies to applications filed after that date.
The listing states that an individual must experience one of the following:
- significant difficulties learning and using academic skills
- frequent distractibility, difficulty paying attention, and difficulty organizing tasks
- hyperactive and impulsive behavior .
- recurrent motor movement or vocalization.
Note that only the first point pertains to dyslexia the other points are used to evaluate applicants with ADHD or tick disorders.
In addition to having one of the above criteria, a person would have to show an “extreme” limitation of one of the following, or a “marked” limitation in two of the following areas of mental functioning:
- understanding, remembering, or applying information
- interacting with others
- concentration, persistence, or pace, or
- adapting or manage oneself.
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What Are The Six Different Types Of Dyslexia
Here are the three main types of dyslexia.
- Primary dyslexia: This is the most common type of dyslexia, and is a dysfunction of, rather than damage to, the left side of the brain and does not change with age. There is variability in the severity of the disability for Individuals with this type of dyslexia, and most who receive an appropriate educational intervention will be academically successful throughout their lives. Unfortunately, there are others who continue to struggle significantly with reading, writing, and spelling throughout their adult lives. Primary dyslexia is passed in family lines through genes or through new genetic mutations and it is found more often in boys than in girls.
- Secondary or developmental dyslexia: This type of dyslexia is caused by problems with brain development during the early stages of fetal development. Developmental dyslexia diminishes as the child matures. It is also more common in boys.
- Trauma dyslexia: This type of dyslexia usually occurs after some form of brain trauma or injury to the area of the brain that controls reading and writing. It is rarely seen in today’s school-age population.
Other types of learning disability include:
Classroom teachers may not be able to determine if a child has dyslexia. They may detect early signs that suggest further assessment by a psychologist or other healthcare professional in order to actually diagnose the disorder.
Signs and symptoms of dyslexia
What Is A Learning Disability
A learning disability is a neurologic disorder that causes difficultiesin learning that cannot be attributed to poor intelligence, poor motivation,or inadequate teaching. Dyslexia is perhaps the most common form of learningdisability. Learning disabilities may occur in the following academic areas:
- Language, both spoken and written and,
- Arithmetic .
As many as 80% of all people with learning disabilities have dyslexia.Dyslexia is often thought to be characterized by writing letters backwardsbut in fact it is much more. Dyslexia is a “reading disability,”and is characterized by an unexpected difficulty in reading by people whopossess the intelligence, motivation, and schooling necessary to read.
It is a persistent, chronic condition rather than a transient developmentallag.
Reading disabilities are perhaps the most common neurobehavioral disorderaffecting children in this country. It is estimated that between five andten percent of the population experiences learning disabilities.
Dr. Sally E. Shaywitz, “Current Concepts: Dyslexia,” 338 NewEngland Journal of Medicine 307 .
Coordinated Campaign for Learning Disabilities, “ABCs of LDD/ADD,” < http://www.ldonline.org>
“Clue to Dyslexia Found,” Washington Post, March 2, 1998 atA1.
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Learning Solutions For Dyslexia
Approaches may vary depending on the symptoms, but most individuals with dyslexia respond well to technology that breaks learning down into bite-size units. It allows them to proceed through a course at their own pace, learning one step at a time and repeating modules until they are ready to move on.